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Testosterone Enanthate is one of the many esterified variants of Testosterone available. It is an injectable compound with a slow rate of release due to the larger Enanthate ester attached to the Testosterone molecule. This augments the release rate and half-life of Testosterone to that of a slower release. The majority of Testosterone products that have been designed are single products that contain a single esterified form, as opposed to Testosterone products which consist of a blend of several different esterified variants in the liquid (such as Sustanon 250, for example). Testosterone that is un-esterified holds a very short half-life, making its use very inconvenient and impractical (Testosterone suspension is one such Testosterone product that consists of pure un-esterified Testosterone, and does not have an ester bonded to its structure). The Enanthate ester expands Testosterone’s half-life to that of 10 days, and blood plasma levels of the hormone remain elevated for a total period of approximately 2 – 3 weeks. Testosterone itself is considered the most natural and safest anabolic steroid any individual can use, and it is easily the most versatile and flexible anabolic steroid in terms of how it can be utilized in cycles and for different purposes and goals.

testosterone_enanthateThe Enanthate variant of Testosterone had first been described in the early 1950s when it had landed on the market and experienced increasingly extensive use shortly thereafter. This was the very first injectable Testosterone ester preparation that provided slower release rates. Prior to the development of Testosterone Enanthate, the most widely utilized forms were either un-esterified Testosterone (Testosterone suspension) or the faster acting Testosterone Propionate, which holds a half-life of approximately 4.5 days, necessitating more frequent injections which can be inconvenient for many. As such, Testosterone Enanthate promptly replaced Testosterone Propionate as the Testosterone of choice by the medical establishment in the West, as well as athletes and bodybuilders utilizing it for performance and physique enhancement. In the United States, Delatestryl manufactured by Squibb was the very first Testosterone Enanthate product to be marketed, and it is still manufactured and marketed today only under different pharmaceutical manufacturers that have purchased the rights to market that name brand. Most recently 2005, for example, Indevus was the latest pharmaceutical company to manufacture and market the drug. Internationally (outside of North America, mostly) the brand name for Testosterone Enanthate is known as Testoviron, which unlike Delatestryl, has been manufactured by Schering ever since its original inception well over 50 years ago. Ultimately it is the Testoviron brand name that is the most popular and widely utilized Testosterone Enanthate product in the world.

Testosterone is the king of all mass builders and for this purpose is also fairly cost effective. It works well either alone or stacked to create a great bulking cycle. It has a high risk of side effects due to its conversion to DHT and has the potential to form estrogen, causing gynecomastia. These characteristics also cause it to have such excellent mass building tendencies. Due to some other side effects, such as water retention, it may not be the best used alone for lean mass gains, but with bulking comes the addition of a lot of muscle as well as some gains in fat and water weight. This is typical and a natural part of the enhanced bodybuilder’s bulking regiment.

Testosterone Enanthate is a long lasting single ester steroid. It is 7 carbons in length. What this means, is that more of the weight of the steroid is testosterone as opposed to ester weight. When taking a quantity of an esterified steroid, the total weight is a combination of both the ester weight and the steroid. That said, longer esters such as Cypionate have more ester weight (due to it’s 8 carbon length), and less overall steroid weight. For this reason, Enanthate would be preferred over Cypionate. Sustanon has even more steroid weight.

500 mg of Enanthate has more free based testosterone than 500 mg of Cypionate and 500 mg of Sustanon has more than either. However, due to the irregular release of Sustanon and the need to inject more frequently to take full advantage of the propionate and phenylpropionate esters and thereby make full release of the steroid itself, either Enanthate or cypionate will be better choices for the first time user, who will likely want to maintain stable blood levels of the steroid while minimizing injection frequency.

A long acting testosterone ester will be very helpful for your bulking needs and Enanthate is a product which is more simple than some of the other steroids out there. Not to say it is without its share of complications, but it’s a good choice, especially for those new to enhanced bodybuilding. Discontinuing the product is not an option in case side effects occur, because it will continue to aggravate these side effects over extended periods of time due to the long length of action of this steroid (3-4 weeks). Ancillary drugs such as Nolvadex, Proviron, Clomid and HCG may help, both during cycle and post cycle to help restore natural testosterone production. Testosterone Enanthate does aromatize slightly more than Sustanon, but when using either drug, one should be familiar with anti-estrogen’s such as Nolvadex or Clomid and use one of them when symptoms of gyno occur.

Those who have prostate problems or those who are sensitive to gyno (for example, those who developed a case of gyno during puberty), and those who are sensitive to female pattern fat deposits will want to ensure anti-estrogens are on hand during cycle in case gyno related side effects arise. As a general rule of thumb, you will always want to keep nolvadex on hand – but obviously, it is even more important if the risks of these side effects are higher than normal (depending on the user and his or her genetic predisposition).

Like any other testosterone, Enanthate suppressed HPTA function. Clomid or Nolvadex are important to have post cycle to stimulate normal testosterone function within a reasonable amount of time. You may also want to use HCG during your cycle, but this is matter of personal preference, as many feel they will be able to recover post cycle and don’t feel the benefit of HCG is worth the cost. Normalization of natural functions which were suppressed during cycle and testosterone production usually occur without the use of HCG, but at a slower rate than if it was used. Like anything in life, there is no guarantee of full recovery, but it would be a rare case if it did not happen.

Weekly totals of 250-1000mg weekly are frequently used, and sometimes more for the highly advanced athlete. Due to the relatively long half life of Enanthate (4-5 days), injections are usually administered twice per week. This will allow stable blood levels to be maintained. When the level of steroid tapers down, a new injection is made, keeping everything fairly level. This is unlike Sustanon, which requires more frequent injections for the same effect. For a first cycle, 500mg alone of Testosterone Enanthate, shot two times weekly (Monday and Thursday for example), for 10 weeks along with standard post cycle therapy would be very sufficient for good gains.

gp_nolvaNolvadex is the name of the drug whose scientific name is tamoxifen citrate. Nolvadex is not a steroid – it is a potent anti-estrogen used as an ancillary drug during cycle when symptoms of gyno occur. It can also be used post cycle to restore natural testosterone production. Symptoms of gyno can occur when using a cycle which contains drugs which aromatize, including (but not limited to) testosterones such as Enanthate, Cypionate and Suspension. The drug is an estrogen agonist / antagonist, which binds to estrogen receptors in different tissues. Whether Nolvadex acts as an estrogen agonist or antagonist depends on which type of tissue it is working in. When the tamoxifen molecule binds to the receptors, estrogen is blocked and cannot result in any type of action – therefore an anti-estrogen effect is exhibited. Nolvadex is used clinically in the treatment of breast cancer since many forms of breast cancer are responsive to the action of estrogen. Nolvadex (GP Nolva)  blocks its actions and works as an effective treatment. Aside from direct treatment of breast cancer, it is used as a preventative measure for those with a genetic predisposition for breast cancer. While Nolvadex is likely the most popular on-cycle anti-estrogen due to its affordable price, more potent remedies are avaialable such as Arimidex, Femara and Aromasin. These ancillary drugs prevent estrogen from being manufactured in the first place and make gyno related side effects virtually nonexistent.

There is an enzyme in the male body known as aromoatase which is capable of altering testosterone so that it forms Estradiol – an estrogen derivative. Estrogen is structurally similar to testosterone and it is present in the male body, but to a much smaller extent than testosterone. Since aromatase can aromatize many anabolic-androgenic steroids, increased levels of estrogen can be a concern for the on-cycle bodybuilder. These levels can cause side effects, the main one being gyno (the development of female breast tissue in men). Symptoms that gyno is developing are itchy nipples, swelling or a small lump under the nipple which is normally painful to the touch. If Nolvadex (GP Nolva) is not on hand during cycle and this lump is left to develop, it can increase in size and may become impossible to get rid of in any method short of surgery. The surgery required for gyno is a simple procedure, but if this can be prevented in some way, most athletes would be willing to make the choices required to do so. High levels of estrogen also lead to an increased level of water retained in the body. The obvious result here is a loss in overall muscular definition – or that “bloated” look. This look is caused by the retention of subcutaneous fluid which will make the athlete look more smooth. Normally this is not a problem for the athlete bulking up, and preventative measures are not an important concern. As estrogen levels rise in the body, fat storage may also be increased. Estrogen is the main reason why women have a higher percentage of body fat compared to men. It is always a smart idea to have all ancillary drugs on hand, including anti-estrogenic drugs such as Nolvadex (GP Nolva), before commencing a cycle. For it symptoms occur during cycle, you may find that you are unable to obtain such drugs and from there, complications can arise.

Nolvadex (GP Nolva) shows potential to increase production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) in the male body which are both important to the enhanced athlete. This is the result of blocking the negative feedback inhibition caused by estrogen at the hypothalamus and pituitary. As a result, the hormones mentioned are released. Both Clomid and cyclofenil also have this function. Nolvadex is also able to have an impact on an individual’s level of serum testosterone. This is important for post cycle therapy when this testosterone stimulating effect is most beneficial. Nolvadex (GP Nolva) can help restore hormonal balance post cycle, which is also very important to the athlete.

Either Nolvadex or Clomid can be used on-cycle as anti-estrogens and post-cycle to help normalize testosterone production quickly. HCG can provide an excessive level of stimulation to the testes, which has the ability to shock them out of a long state of inactivity. Generally HCG is not necessary in small cycles where dosages are kept low. However, it will help normalize things faster than if it is not used, so many choose to run it on-cycle for this added benefit.

A standard dosage of Nolvadex on cycle as an anti-estrogen would be 10-30mg a day. The amount used would depend on what effect the user would like to elicit. More would clearly elicit a stronger effect, but users should determine how much they will require by starting at lower dosages and working their way up, so as not to use more than they require for the desired effect. For those steroid users who are using highly aromatizing substances (such as testosterone suspension), or those who have a sensitivity to estrogen, using Nolvadex (GP Nolva) during cycle will probably be a smart idea to start early in the cycle.

Nolvadex (GP Nolva) is specifically a non-steroidal SERM belonging to the triphenylethylene family of compounds that exhibits both Estrogen agonist and Estrogen antagonistic effects on the body. This means that although Nolvadex might block the effect of Estrogen at the cellular level in certain tissues, it can enhance Estrogenic effects in other areas of the body. These can be positive effects as well as negative effects. GP Nolva exhibits Estrogenic effects in the liver, for example, which for all intents and purposes is a positive effect, as its effects here result in a positive change in cholesterol profiles (something desired by many). The area of concern with Nolvadex is particularly in breast tissue, where it serves to act as an anti-Estrogen in this area (and a very strong one at that). This is where it is utilized in medicine, as a first-line treatment in Estrogen-responsive female breast cancer patients. It is even utilized in females that do not possess breast cancer, but are known as being in a high risk category (due to hereditary genetics or otherwise) as a preventative measure. It is through its medical application that one can easily see how such a compound would easily attract the anabolic steroid using bodybuilding and athletic community, as one of the more prominent concerns among anabolic steroid users is that of the Estrogenic effects caused by the use of aromatizable androgens (such as Testosterone, Dianabol, Boldenone, etc.), mores specifically: gynecomastia (the development of breast tissue). If gynecomastia is left unchecked, it can develop and grow beyond a reversible point whereby the only option for removal is that of surgery.

Nolvadex (GP Nolva) possesses other very desirable effect, such as its ability to increase circulating levels of endogenous gonadotropins Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), and through this, increasing the endogenous production of Testosterone. This is a perfect example of the mixed Estrogen antagonistic and agonistic properties of Nolvadex, where it works to block the ability for Estrogen to bind to receptors at the hypothalamus. This results in the manipulation of the negative feedback loop of the HPTA (Hypothalamic Pituitary Testicular Axis), and results in the increased output of gonadotropins (the hormones that signal the testes to begin or increase the output of Testosterone production). It is for this reason that Nolvadex is considered an absolutely essential component of a PCT (Post Cycle Therapy) program during the weeks following anabolic steroid use in order to restore the function of endogenous Testosterone production.

Nolvadex Post Cycle Doses:
For a good Nolvadex (GP Nolva) post cycle plan very few will ever need more than 40mg per day and most will find that ending with a lower dose of 20mg per day to be just about perfect. For the healthy adult male a good Nolvadex post cycle plan will run for approximately 4-6 weeks in total duration; 4 weeks should be the standard with 1-2 additional weeks being added if necessary. In most cases the additional weeks will only be needed if the anabolic steroid cycle was strong, was extended and of a high suppressive nature. A solid Nolvadex (GP Nolva) post cycle plan for most any man to follow would look something like this:

Basic Plan:
Week 1: 40mg every day
Week 2: 40mg every day
Week 3: 20mg every day
Week 4: 20mg every day

Extended Plan:
Week 1: 40mg every day
Week 2: 40mg every day
Week 3: 40mg every day
Week 4: 20mg every day
Week 5: 20mg every day
Week 6: 20mg every day

hexarelinHexarelin is another hexapeptide like GHRP-6.  Unlink the other GHRP’s out there, Hexarelin is the dark horse, the black sheep, the underdog not usually mentioned and often over looked for certain qualities.  This grossly underestimated peptide shouldn’t be pushed to the side, but rather examined to understand its benefits and usability for bodybuilders and athletes alike.
The structure of the amino acid is that of a hexapeptide known to help promote the release of growth hormone (GH).  The mechanism of action is not yet fully understood by scientists.  However, what we know is that Hexarelin has the ability to act both on the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.  It is known to give the largest release of GH than any other GHRP. Like other peptides, Hexarelin has the ability to help promote more production of natural growth hormone, and it will not shut down the production of the body’s ability to produce GH.

Interestingly, the most amazing finding with Hexarelin was its ability to act on cardiac receptors separate from the GH releasing properties. The peptide can directly aid in cardio protective left ventricular pressure issues, as well as, help healing scar tissue on the heart.  Studies on lean and obese lab rats concluded that while lean rats were able to take advantage of the GH plasma increase better than the obese rats (the healthier the rat the more Hexarelin effectively produced and utilized GH), obese rats did not see the same advantage.  Separate from the studies that monitored GH, both lean and obese rats both received all of the cardio protective properties of Hexarelin.

When Hexarelin is given as a subcutaneous injection, it activates the pituitary via a pulse, just like GHRP-6, and helps circulate growth hormone in the body.  Unlike GHRP-6, it does not induce any hunger side effects.  Hexarelin has the ability to not only raise the level of GH in the body but to also suppress somatostatin, which is the main culprit that inhibits GH from being released.  This means that there will be more GH in abundance.  In addition, Hexarelin is the strongest GHRP available, so users should notice that desensitization can come much quicker than other GHRP’s.   This makes it less ideal for long term use, but with Hexarelin’s ability to raise healthy levels of IGF-1 and GH it can work perfect as a PCT tool for those coming off a synthetic GH/IGF-1 cycle.

Hexarelin comes in a freeze dried powder just like the other GHRP peptides and storage should be done in a cool dry place until reconstituted and placed in a refrigerator.  Bacteriostatic water is used to reconstitute the powder and an insulin syringe is the preferred method for administering subcutaneous injections of Hexarelin.  Users will notice 200mcgs is the saturation dose for hexarelin and over a few weeks of use total desensitization may begin to take place.  Also, the occasional flare up of the pituitary has been noted when dosing far beyond saturation doses.  Desensitization can be cleared easily by taking a break from Hexarelin usage for a few days to a few weeks.  This GHRP is the strongest, and because of the desensitization factor,  the optimal way to use this peptide would be to blend it at low doses with other GHRP’s like GHRP2, GHRP6 or iPamorelin.  By combining a low dose of Hexarelin with another GHRP, you are going to increase your ability to put out a greater pulse of growth hormone.  Combine this with GHRH’s and you have a synergistic blend that will release GH more effectively.  In fact, for synthetic HGH users, this may be a viable way to save money on using less exogenous GH by combining it with Hexarelin in a GHRP+GHRH cycle.  As a result, utilizing Hexarelin in this protocol would establish the maximum GH release in the body.
In studies where Hexarelin was injected subcutaneously, Growth Hormone, measured through plasma concentrations, increased significantly and within thirty minutes of injection.  GH levels decreased back to normal around four hours post injection.  The GH increase, has been found to be effective up to 2mg/kg, any further increase in dose was found to be ineffective in causing a GH response.

Results showed that Hexarelin’s effect on GH stimulation tapered between weeks 4 through 16.  Separating cycles by 4 week off periods, avoided the negative feedback loop and the next cycle of Hexarelin produced the same level of results as the first cycle.
In animals, Hexarelin has been administered for longer periods. In six old beagle dogs, Cella and colleagues demonstrated a decrease in hexarelin-stimulated GH release during twice-daily sc hexarelin therapy given for periods of 7 weeks, 4 weeks, and 1 week, with no change in serum IGF-I. If the GH response to Hexarelin in humans becomes appreciably attenuated after long-term administration, then this will seriously limit the potential therapeutic use of Hexarelin and similar agents. There are no data available on the GH releasing capacity of hexarelin after long-term administration or on the effect of hexarelin-stimulated GH release on serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in normal adult subjects. Furthermore, there are few data on the GH response to Hexarelin after a period off treatment. We have, therefore, assessed the effect of 16 weeks of twice-daily sc hexarelin therapy on the GH response to a single injection of Hexarelin and also the GH response 4 weeks after cessation of Hexarelin therapy. We also have assessed the effect of Hexarelin stimulated GH release on serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, markers of bone formation [osteocalcin, procollagen-type-III-N-terminal-peptide (PIIINP), and C-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP)], and resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline and pyridinoline), body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD).

gp_primaGP Prima (Primobolan) by Geneza Pharmaceuticals is one of those anabolic steroids which has a cult following not unlike the old original version of Masteron.  If there’s one steroid that can be considered as close to perfect as can be, it’d be GP Prima. It not only has the very best “risk to benefit” ratio of any steroid, it’s also the safest and arguably the most effective steroid available.  But it depends on what you want from a steroid. It would seem that everyone would want to use it though some people misunderstand it or simply don’t know how to make the best use of it.

Like the name suggests  — GP Prima  meaning “first” or “number one” , Primobolan tops the list of premier tissue building drugs.  By emphasizing the anabolic nature and reducing the harsher androgenic qualities, GP Prima was designed to have as few side effects as possible, which is most definitely the case.   Suppression of the HPTA is minimal and increased blood pressure, liver damage, the risk of gyno, or any ill feeling at all is virtually non-existent with Primo.

Being the most anabolic and the least androgenic of all steroids, it’s pure and clean and pretty damn near perfect.  But there’s a catch. GP Prima by itself will not yield big gains. Muscle growth is slow and solid and without the big gain in size. For this reason people mistaken think that Primo takes a long time to “kick in.”  That is not so.  It starts working immediately, but growing solid muscle takes time.  However, size is more than pure muscle tissue — it’s water, creatine levels, blood volume, etc. And that’s where other steroids will show a quicker response while GP Prima seems to take its time.  That’s because it’s a pure muscle builder. It grows muscles the way they grow naturally, through increased nitrogen retention – just at an accelerated rate.

Since GP Prima works by retaining nitrogen it is essential that you take in a lot of protein in order for it to do what it does. A high protein diet along with additional protein supplements makes GP Prima work at its best. Primobolan is one of few steroids that is ideal for both bulking and cutting. The truth be told, there really is no such things as “bulking steroid” or a “cutting steroid” it’s just that some generate more water retention than others. That can work in your advantage if you’re looking to put on weight (even water weight) in order to get your body adapted to more mass. And the feeling of busting out of your shirtsleeves can be fun too.  But beyond water retention, bulking and cutting is more a matter of diet. GP Prima will not produce fast increases in weight weight by itself, but if calories are increased it’s a wonderful drug for bulking without the bloat. (What some people call a” lean bulk”).   Of course, in a calorie deficit GP Prima will still create muscle growth, making it a favorite for  competitive bodybuilders in the last few weeks before a contest.

Stacking with GP Prima:

As great as GP Prima is, most guys feel they need to kick it up a notch by adding something stronger and in that regard, GP Prima by Geneza Pharmaceuticals is  very easy to stack since it goes with anything. There are no contraindications with other steroids and whatever else you’re using, Primobolan will simply add a greater anabolic impact to it. The most logical stacking choice with Primo would be testosterone. Test goes with everything as well and the combination is a winning one. Not being particularly androgenic (even though, like all steroids, it’s based off of the testosterone molecule) Primobolan  can still cause some suppression since the androgenic quality would be just enough to suppress but not high enough to add more than the  body would produce on its own. For maximum growth, some androgen elevation is needed.  The induced suppression along with the lack of androgen replacement can lead to a slight loss of libido. Adding a little testosterone  rectifies that potential pitfall plus increases greater muscle building potential. Together the two steroids provide all you want and need from a cycle. Stacking multiple injectable compounds is usually unnecessary.

GP Prima (Primobolan) displays many favorable characteristics, most which stem from the fact that methenolone does not convert to estrogen. Estrogen linked side effects should therefore not be seen at all when administering this steroid. Sensitive individuals need not worry about developing gynecomastia, nor should they be noticing any water retention with this drug. The increase seen with GP Prima (Primobolan) will be only quality muscle mass and not the smooth bloat which accompanies most steroids open to aromatization. During a cycle the user should additionally not have much trouble with blood pressure values, as this effect is also related (generally) to estrogen and water retention. At a moderate dosage of 100-200mg weekly, GP Prima (Primobolan) should also not interfere with endogenous testosterone levels as much as when taking an injectable Nandrolone or Testosterone. This is very welcome, as the athlete should not have to be as concerned with ancillary drugs when the steroid is discontinued (a less extreme hormonal crash). At higher doses strong testosterone suppression may be noticed however, as all steroids can act to suppress testosterone production at a given dosage. Here of course an ancillary drug regimen may be indicated.

The typical “safe” dosage for men is 100-200mg per week, a level that should produce at least some noticeable muscle growth. Among athletes, men may respond to weekly doses of 200mg but regular users will often inject much higher doses looking for a stronger anabolic effect. It is not uncommon for a bodybuilder to take as much as 600 or 800mg per week (6 to 8 100mg ampules), a range which appears to be actually quite productive. Of course androgenic side effects may become more pronounced with such an amount, but in most instances it should still be quite tolerable.

In addition, it is most popular for male bodybuilders to stack GP Prima (Primobolan) with other (generally stronger) steroids in order to obtain a faster and more enhanced effect. As mentioned earlier, GP Prima (Primobolan) is also used effectively during bulking phases of training. The addition of testosterone, Dianabol or Anadrol 50 would prove quite effective for adding new muscle mass. Of course we would have to deal with estrogenic side effects, but in such cases GP Prima (Primobolan) should allow the user to take a much lower dosage of the more “toxic” drug and still receive acceptable results.

GHRP-6The most common use of these peptides is to increase GH production. Other peptides in this category include GHRP-2, hexarelin, and ipamorelin. With regard to increasing GH, all of these work similarly, and there is no need or advantage to combining them. Instead, the one most suited for the particular case is chosen. The principal use of GHRP-6 is to provide increased GH levels, which also results in increased IGF-1 levels. This aids fat loss and in some instances aids muscle gain as well. Generally, GHRP use is chosen as an alternate to GH use, and only rarely is combined with GH.

Reasons to prefer GHRP-6 over other GHRP’s are its effect on increasing appetite (which also can be a disadvantage), and its demonstrated value in reducing inflammation and helping to heal injury, particularly tendinitis. GHRP-6 (Growth Hormone Releasing Hexapeptide 6) is a peptide hormone (also referred to as a protein hormone) that belongs to a category known as HGH (Human Growth Hormone) secretagogues. That is to say that these peptide hormones will act in such a way in the body so as to stimulate secretion of Human Growth Hormone. Furthermore, GHRP-6 is a member of a category of HGH secretagogues known as Ghrelin mimetics, which are all various Growth Hormone Releasing Hexapeptide analogues. The peptides in this family include: GHRP-6, GHRP-2, Hexarelin and Ipamorelin. They are referred to as Ghrelin mimetics because they mimic the actions of the endogenous hormone Ghrelin, whereby they will attach to the GH secretagogue receptor at the anterior pituitary gland. Other activities of Ghrelin involve its activity as a hunger-stimulating peptide hormone, which easily explains the ability for many of the GHRPs to stimulate appetite to various degrees. It is very important to note that GHRP-6, as well as the other Ghrelin mimetics previously mentioned are very distinctly different peptide hormones from Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRH), such as Mod GRF 1-29 (CJC-1295 without DAC). GHRH peptides such as Mod GRF -129, and GHRP peptides such as GHRP-6, are very different classes of GH secretagogues that function through very different receptors and pathways. Therefore, the two should not be confused with one another.

GHRP-6 is a first generation GHRP, and like all other HGH secretagogues, it is a very new compound that is currently undergoing clinical trials. Therefore, the extent of gathered knowledge on this peptide is currently very minimal, but the medical establishment and its scientists are hopeful of holding a better understanding of these peptides over the next several years of research. There are many aspects of GHRP-6 and other HGH secretagogues that are not fully or completely understood, and this point must be made absolutely clear prior to delving further into this profile. New discoveries in regards to these peptides will no doubt be made over the coming years, in both clinical as well as anecdotal settings. It is the bodybuilding and performance enhancing drug using community to therefore develop logical and rational approaches to its use, supported as much as possible by proper clinical and scientific data (whenever possible).

When to use GHRP-6:
GHRP-6 is most generally used for the same purposes that GH might be used, but may be chosen where a cost advantage exists favoring GHRP-6, GH is not available, or the individual prefers the idea of stimulating his own GH production to injecting GH.

These purposes can include increased fat loss, improved muscle gain when used in combination with anabolic steroids, cosmetic improvement of the skin, and improved healing from injury.

There is no need to cycle GHRP use, and so therefore GHRP-6 may be used whenever it is thought to be useful for any of the above reasons. However, when usage is ongoing instead of short-term amplification of a steroid cycle or fat-loss program, doctor recommend limiting dosage to the minimum end of the suggested dosage range.

GHRP operates via the same pathways as other GHRPs, such as GHRP-2 and Ipamorelin with some distinct differences. Almost all GHRPs will stimulate hunger simply by virtue of the fact that they are Ghrelin mimetics, but GHRP-6 has demonstrated both anecdotally as well as clinically to stimulate the largest hunger increases in comparison to all other GHRPs. Studies on GHRP-6 have also demonstrated, when administered after the recent consumption of food, will exhibit lipogenic (fat-storing) properties. The same study had also demonstrated the vast difference in HGH output from the pituitary gland when combined with a GHRH analogue (a 77% increase in HGH output) compared to administration alone. The consumption of carbohydrates and fats too soon before or after administration of GHRP-6 (or any GHRP) has been shown to blunt HGH release from the pituitary gland as well. The aforementioned study has also demonstrated that the presence of acetylcholine in the brain will amplify the amount of HGH released via its inhibitory effects on somatostatin (a hormone that inhibits HGH release from the pituitary gland). In addition, this peptide (as well as GHRP-2) has demonstrated the ability to increase Cortisol and Prolactin secretion alongside HGH secretion, although the level of secretion of these two hormones are said to only become a concern in the higher dose ranges. Insulin has demonstrated in studies to amplify the HGH response to GHRP-6 as well.

What does all of this mean for GHRP-6 and how it can be used? This will be further explained in the GHRP-6 doses section of this profile, but in the meantime, a few key points can be summarized:

– Proper timing of GHRP-6 doses surrounding meals should be executed so as to ensure maximal HGH release from the pituitary gland.
– GHRP Ghrelin mimetics, such as GHRP-6, should be administered in combination with a GHRH (such as Mod GRF 1-29) in order to initiate and amplify a greater pulse of HGH from the pituitary compared to GHRP-6 used solitarily on its own. The effects of a GHRH analogue with a GHRP are synergistic in their effects on the pituitary gland in amplifying the release of HGH from the pituitary.

GHRP-6 is a protein/peptide hormone consisting of a polypeptide chain of 6 amino acids. This polypeptide chain that makes up GHRP-6 contains unnatural D-amino acids, which were created synthetically specifically for the application of Human Growth Hormone release from the pituitary gland, making GHRP-6 known as a “true” HGH secretagogue. GHRP-6, as well as all other GHRPs, will interact with receptors on the pituitary gland (and in many extents, on the hypothalamus as well that are distinctly different receptors from the ones that GHRH interacts with. GHRP-6 will stimulate the HGH secretagogue receptor (recently renamed as the Ghrelin receptor), not the GHRH receptor. Through this interaction, GHRP-6 will stimulate a pulsate release of HGH from the pituitary gland, which is most intense within the first 30 minutes, and lasts several hours (with the actual half-life of GHRP-6 itself being between 15 to 60 minutes).

bodybuilding_and_cialisReproduction (or making a baby) is a simple and natural experience for most couples. However, for some couples it is very difficult to conceive. Male infertility is diagnosed when, after testing of both partners, reproductive problems have been found in the male partner. Infertility is a widespread problem. For about one in five infertile couples the problem lies solely in the male partner (male infertility).

Are there any signs or symptoms of male infertility?
In most cases, there are no obvious signs of an infertility problem. Intercourse, erections and ejaculation will usually happen without difficulty. The quantity and appearance of the ejaculated semen generally appears normal to the naked eye.

How does the male reproductive system work?
The male reproductive tract is made up of the testes, a system of ducts (tubes) and other glands opening into the ducts. The testes (testis: singular) are a pair of egg shaped glands that sit in the scrotum next to the base of the penis on the outside of the body.

Each normal testis is 15 to 35ml in volume in adult men. The testes are needed for the male reproductive system to function normally. The testes have two related but separate roles:

production of sperm
production of the male sex hormone, testosterone.

Male infertility can be caused by problems that affect sperm production or the sperm transport process. With the results of medical tests, the doctor may be able to find a cause of the problem. Sperm production problems: The most common cause of male infertility is due to a problem in the sperm production process in the testes. Low numbers of sperm are made and/or the sperm that are made do not work properly. About two thirds of infertile men have sperm production problems.

Blockage of sperm transport: Blockages (often referred to as obstructions) in the tubes leading sperm away from the testes to the penis can cause a complete lack of sperm in the ejaculated semen. This is the second most common cause of male infertility and affects about one in every five infertile men, including men who have had a vasectomy but now wish to have more children.

Sperm antibodies: In some men, substances in the semen and/or blood called sperm antibodies can develop which can reduce sperm movement and block egg binding (where the sperm attaches to the egg) as is needed for fertilization. About one in every 16 infertile men has sperm antibodies.
Sexual problems: Difficulties with sexual intercourse, such as erection or ejaculation problems, can also stop couples from becoming pregnant. Sexual problems are not a common cause of infertility.
Hormonal problems: Sometimes the pituitary gland does not send the right hormonal messages to the testes. This can cause both low testosterone levels and a failure of the testes to produce sperm.

Hormonal causes are uncommon, and affect less than one in 100 infertile men. Unfortunately, medical scientists do not yet understand all the details of sperm production and the fertilisation process. As a result, for many men with a sperm production problem, the cause cannot be identified. When a man uses synthetic forms of testosterone (all anabolic steroids are derivatives of testosterone), the hypothalamus responds by halting the body’s testosterone- synthesizing process. One side effect of this mechanism, even from conservative or therapeutic doses of testosterone, is the precipitous decline of sperm production after about two weeks.  Sperm production begins anew if the testosterone injections are discontinued, and it is usually restored to normal levels when the hormone has completely cleared the body. Whether sperm production is fully restored, however, ultimately depends on the duration of the testosterone injections and the individual subject’s response.

Athletes commonly use dosages of steroids that are 10-40 times greater than the suggested therapeutic range. This theoretically places these men at risk of side effects related to long-term testosterone inhibition, a medical condition known as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Indications of this disorder include shrunken testicles, impotence and, most commonly, infertility.
Should athletes who inject testosterone worry about infertility? To some degree, yes. Since the probability of inducing pregnancy depends on a certain number of active sperm, depletion of sperm due to long-term or high-dose steroid use could ruin an athlete’s hopes of fathering children.

That, however, is a worst-case scenario. While the possibility of permanent infertility always looms over heavy steroid users, it is something of a rarity in real life. The plethora of former anabolic steroid users with normal healthy offspring bears testimony to this fact. The first case involved a 31-year-old bodybuilder with a six- year history of infertility due to a low sperm count. This subject had taken eight-week cycles of anabolic steroids for five years. An examination revealed shrunken testicles, a low level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), low levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and a low testosterone level. He was advised to immediately discontinue steroid use.

Within a year, his sperm count and the motility (movement) of his sperm had both improved. His LH and FSH levels returned to a normal range, although his testosterone level remained slightly below normal. After 11/z years of laying off steroids, his sperm count rebounded to normal, but his testosterone still lagged. Despite this, the subject’s wife became pregnant 20 months after he ceased steroid use.  The primary abnormalities included either a complete lack of sperm or too few sperm to induce a pregnancy. Other problems related to the lack of fertility in these men involved sluggish sperm motility and defects in sperm structure.

Importantly, however, sperm count improved in all these men after they ceased drug use, though the recovery time varied among the individual subjects. Data from research involving the contraceptive usage of steroids shows that it often takes up to a year to return to full fertility. Contraceptive applications involve testosterone doses far smaller than those typically used for athletic enhancement. As such, the time scale for return of full fertility to athletes who use steroids remains speculative and may (as noted in these cases) also depend on individual response. Other medical research also points to an eventual return of fertility if all steroid usage is stopped. But it’s important to remember that even after steroids are discontinued, sperm production still takes time to return to normal values. Once sperm synthesis is curtailed (as with steroid usage), it takes a minimum of 64 days for sperm cells to appear in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. It then takes another one to 20 days for the sperm to travel through the testicular ductal system. Some researchers believe, however, that if fertility hasn’t improved within six months of ceasing steroid usage, some medical intervention is prudent. Such treatment most often involves the administration of gonadotropins in an effort to prod lagging endogenous testosterone and sperm production. Specifically, it involves providing drugs such as intramuscular injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which mimics the effects of LH, and possibly human menopausal gonadotropin, which is used to promote pregnancy in women and sperm production in men.  After the resolution of the EU clinical use of tadalafil – a new tool to combat impotence, created by U.S. companies Eli Lilly and ICOS, the drug appeared in early 2003 in European pharmacies under the trade name Cialis pill. This drug acts like Viagra, but the effect is achieved more quickly and stored at 2-3 times longer. A new drug for the treatment of erectile dysfunction Cialis (active ingredient – Tadalafil). The main feature of Cialis is that it restores the ability of men to get an erection for up to 36 hours. It is important to note that erection occurs only during sexual arousal. This will allow couples do not plan their sexual relationship and not to abandon the normal rhythm of life. You can, for example, to take a pill in the morning and go on a date night.
However, it should be noted, alcohol in large doses by itself affects the erection and, in addition, alcohol abuse can cause erectile dysfunction.

Cialis belongs to a class of inhibitors of the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5. Its action is based on a selective and effective blockade of phosphodiesterase-5, which relaxes smooth muscle cells and increase blood flow to the penis. Now Cialis pill – the only inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5, reducing the ability to get an erection for 36 hours. As with all drugs of this class, such as Viagra, Cialis tablet is contraindicated for joint application with nitrates used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Bodybuilders and other athletes take it as a performance-enhancing substance.  Many bodybuilding supplements are built around this same molecule and are marketed for use as preworkout vasodilators. In general, a vasodilator opens, or dilates, your blood vessels. Such a substance works directly on muscles in your artery walls, preventing them from tightening and narrowing the walls. The result – blood is able to flow more easily through your arteries. Also, your blood pressure is reduced because your heart does not have to pump as hard.

testosteroneTestosterone boosters or natural anabolics, are nutritional supplements which are purported to boost endogenous production of testosterone, or else, improve the bio-availability of testosterone already produced by the body. They are distinct from pro-hormones or off-the-shelf (OTS) steroids, which are compounds that are designed to mimic the actions of testosterone in the body by potentially leading to decreased natural testosterone production. Testosterone boosters are taken in with the aim to optimize your body’s production and use of testosterone, rather than seeking to replace it.

The hormone testosterone is of prime importance for anyone seeking to increase their strength or muscle mass as it plays a very significant role in the acquisition of both. Indeed, men’s higher testosterone levels are the main reason they are more muscular than women. Furthermore, higher testosterone levels are linked to greater burning of body fat, greater aggression, and increased sex drive. Clearly then, anything which could be seen to enhance the actions of testosterone in the body would be highly prized by athletes. For those athletes unwilling to take anabolic steroids or pro hormones, testosterone boosting supplements which manage to enhance testosterone or increase the bio-availability of testosterone will be of considerable interest.

Testosterone boosters will often be stacked with similar sports supplements such as creatine, protein powders, fat burners and fish oils in an effort to help the natural athlete replicate some of the results achieved by drug users. A testosterone boosting supplement which works as advertised should allow for greater muscle mass and strength gains without any of the negative side effects of steroid use. The number of ingredients purported to increase testosterone is longer than even an orange-utan’s arms. Here we will look at some of the ones which have been marketed to bodybuilders over the years. Some you will have heard of and some may well be new, largely because they are so old but a thorough review necessitates covering as many ingredients as possible.

Boron – Boron is a trace mineral which was frequently found in many supplements in the 1980s and 90s, based on the belief it would increase testosterone levels. Post-menopausal women supplemented with boron showed increased blood levels of testosterone in one study1. However, it is a large stretch to suppose that once adequate boron status is reached, that supra-physiological amounts will lead to increased testosterone production. Given the fact that most minerals are good for correcting deficiencies only, and the experience of millions of bodybuilders from the past, we can discount the idea of any anabolic properties attributable to boron.

Glandular Extracts – Glandular extracts such as dried bull’s testicles were probably the first testosterone boosters marketed to athletes on the basis that bulls produce a vast amount of testosterone and if we could ingest their glandular extracts, we too could grow to superhuman proportions. Sadly, apart from getting strange looks from people, these extracts are worthless and better left on the bull. Thankfully (for the bulls’ sakes) they are absent from the bodybuilding market today, although still marketed to the impressionable and the uninformed. If you see anyone claiming to have made great gains from these he will undoubtedly be full of bull! The reality is that there has never been a single study conducted showing benefits with the use of glandular.

Tribulus Terrestris – Tribulus Terrestris is the plant that kick-started the recent wave of natural testosterone boosters. It first came to prominence in the late 90s and was based on research conducted in Eastern Europe showing it elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone by 72% and 40% respectively3. Unfortunately, the same study showed estradiol levels rising by 81%, and while the increase in testosterone and LH kept these values within normal bounds, the rise in estradiol placed it well beyond normal measurements seen in healthy males. This raises the possibility that the body is up-regulating aromatization to help counter the increased testosterone and LH produced by tribulus ingestion. This suggests taking the tribulus with an anti-estrogen such as 6-OXO may be a good idea.

However, a number of other studies have been unable to replicate the results of the original tribulus study. There have been criticisms made of many tribulus products containing insufficient amounts of the potent tribulus terrestris extract, as opposed to the raw plant material, as well as most studies being funded by the manufacturer.

Today, tribulus remains a central ingredient of many testosterone boosting supplements and many bodybuilders swear to its effectiveness, often citing increased libido while taking tribulus containing products. It has been suggested this could be related to effects on dopamine rather than testosterone, with increased dopamine being noted to increase libido. Indeed, animal studies have shown loss of muscular co-ordination in sheep consistent with neurological disease such as Parkinson’s. Although it should not be a concern for bodybuilders using tribulus for a short period of time, prolonged use is not advised. Dosages used in clinical studies where a positive effect has been shown have ranged between 750mg-1500mg daily. As already stated, it is recommended to take this in combination with an anti-estrogen, and the user should ensure it is with tribulus terrestris extract and not just the plant material.

Tribulus terrestris plant only contains trace amounts of protodioscin (the active steroidal sapogenin / saponin responsible for stimulating LH in men), so consuming the whole plant is useless. Tribulus must be standardized for at least 10% protodioscin in order to be effective. Many supplement companies will sell a tribulus product containing 2% protodioscin or less so try to ensure when buying tribulus you only buy a product with a high amount of protodioscin.

Zinc – Zinc is a trace mineral which like boron has been advocated for many years as important for boosting testosterone production. There is some research to support this contention. Zinc is an essential factor in the production of testosterone by men, and a deficiency in Zinc has been linked to low testosterone levels. Further research has shown zinc to be beneficial in athletes in preventing the decline in testosterone triggered by exhaustive exercise. Supplementing with zinc is therefore something athletes should consider especially if they are unaware of their own zinc status, which is likely. As athletes will deplete their body of minerals and vitamins at a faster rate than the sedentary population, supplemental zinc can certainly have its place.

However, it should be noted that once optimal Zinc status has been attained, there is no evidence to show that increasing zinc levels beyond the point at which the deficiency is corrected will do anything to increase testosterone production further. That is, taking zinc can well allow you to go from low to normal testosterone, but not from normal to high levels. Intakes of 15-30mg should be sufficient to cover athletes’ needs.

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