Cytomegalovirus presents a significant danger for people with diseases which reduce immunity system function.
Today the most important issue is problem of compatibility of cytomegalovirus and HIV infection.
When immunity decreases (which often occurs in people with AIDS), cytomegalovirus may become so active that may damage all organs and systems in the body, and even cause development of oncological diseases.
Immunodeficiency disorders may appear after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients who used those treatments for their cancer, or after admission high doses of corticosteroids, or may result from immunoreduction therapy after organ transplantation.
Cytomegalovirus presents a true danger for pregnant women because cytomegaly may cause miscarriage or dead birth.
In later terms, the disease may cause severe birth defects or disorders found after birth in a baby such as increased liver and spleen, hemorrhage in internal organs, symptoms of nervous system damage.
Therefore, women who plan pregnancy should undergo tests on cytomegalovirus along with rubella, toxoplasmosis and herpes.
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Cytomegalovirus disease belongs to “civilization diseases” that were spread worldwide in the past decades. Cytomegalovirus was described in the end of XIX century for the first time and it was considered that the infection is transmitted via saliva. The pathogen was discovered in 1956 by Margaret Gladys Smith.
External appearance of cytomegalovirus is similar to herpes viruses which cause genital virus and lip sore. Cell affected by cytomegalovirus has a large size and contains typical large inclusion bodies. Due to this specific look the disease was called cytomegalovirus (from the Greek cyto-, “cell”, and -megalo-, “large”).
In 1956 first was proved that cytomegalovirus disease is transmitted not only via saliva but also during sexual intercourse, during pregnancy from mother to baby. Also are known cases when people get infected with cytomegalovirus during blood transfusion and organ transplantation.
Cytomegalovirus disease is very common, however, many virus carriers are unsuspicious of its existence in their body. First of all, it is related to cases when virus not shows any clinical symptoms. Often cytomegalovirus lives in human body whole his life without showing itself and without having negative effects over the body.Sometimes cytomegalovirus shows with symptoms of an ordinary cold and in this case people diseased with it may transmit the virus to other people via close contacts with them.
Most adults and significant number of children are infected with this virus. Cytomegalovirus is most common in developing countries where living standards are low, and poor social and hygienic conditions make the virus spread more quickly.
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Common smear test both in male and female helps only to suspect ureaplasmas.In ureaplasmosis the white blood count in smear test may be insignificantly increased or may even not exceed the norm.
Today to detect pathogen are used more precise methods of investigation, for example, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial inoculation.
Also immunoenzyme methods are widely used. However they are charaterized with low precision (nearly 50 – 70%). Detection of antibodies to Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum are limited in ureaplasmosis diagnistics.
When ureaplasmosis is found in a man, his sexual partner should also undergo treatment even if the partner has no complaints. It should be done because sexual partner may be a reservoir of infection, which may lead to repeated infecting of the man who got treated from it.
There are two directions in ureaplasmosis treatment;
1) treatment with antibacterial medications with account of sensitivity to ureaplasmas
2) correction of immune system disorders. There was proved slight effectiveness of isolated antibiotic therapy
The last stage in ureaplasmosis treatment is obligatory regeneration of vaginal normal flora in a woman.
When ureaplasmas are found, it is necessary to say about it to both partners even if they do not experience any symptoms. They both should undergo general examination and treatment if necessary.
Both partners should undergo examination if they plan pregnancy. Taking into account the possibility of misbirth or premature delivery, it is necessary to get rid of ureaplasmas preliminarily.
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Ureaplasmosis presents danger for pregnant women as it may cause miscarriage or infection development in oviducts. The disease may lead to development of chorioamnionitis, puerperal endometritis, premature birth and fetus aplasia. In very neglected cases the infection may cause purulent-septic development in mother and baby.
It is proved that ureaplasmas have negative effects on male reproductive function. Studies showed that ureaplasmas may attach to sperm cells and break their motion activity, and in some cases even destroy sex cells.
Ureaplasmosis may course in acute or chronic form. As other infections, the disease has no symptoms specific for this pathogen. Ureaplasmosis signs depend on the organ it has damaged. At the same time, modern methods of examination find ureaplasmosis in healthy women who experience no disease manifestations and frequently it goes with other ingections.
Ureaplasmas may cause inflammation of any part of urogenital tract: urethra, prostate, bladder, testes and their adnexa – in males; vagina, alvus and its adnexa – in females.
Ureaplasmosis shows its symptoms in 3 – 5 weeks after infecting. It should be noticed that patients experience non-significant symptoms, and frequently they do not feel any symptoms at all (especially women).
Ureaplasmosis symptoms in males:
- poor liquid discharge from urethra
- moderate pains and itching during urination
- prostatitis symptoms when prostate gland is affected
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Ureaplasmosis is characterized with urinary tract inflammation and is caused by ureaplasmas – microorgamisms by size similar to large viruses and at the same time similar to bacteria.
Some scientists consider it a transition stage from virus to bacteria.
Ureaplasmas are opportunistic pathogens, which means they may cause the disease in particular circumstances, but normally they live on mucosa of genitals and urinary tract of a human and he experiences no symptoms at all.
Ways of transmission
Transmission of infection occurs via sexual intercourse, however, is possible transplacental infection from infected mother, and besides this, microbes may get into baby genitalia during birth and live there all his life in dormant state. Community-acquired infection is impossible. 70% people who have ureaplasmas in their body do not experience any specific sensation.
Some people experience unpleasant sensations periodically – sometimes they appear and sometimes they disappear. However, deficiency of symptoms does not mean that ureaplasmas has no harmful effects on the body. Only 10% women normally have ureaplasma in their vagina which does not require treatment. In other cases ureaplasmosis is risk factor, and sometimes it causes severe pathology of female genitalia, pregnancy troubles and birth complications. Ureaplasmas are found on genitalia in each third newborn girl.
In boys ureaplasmas are found much rarely due to genitalia anatomy – boys genitalia are protected during passage through birth canal of mother. Frequently children infected with ureaplasmas during birth get self-recovered after some time. Most often this occurs in boys. In people who are active sexually, the incidence of ureaplasmosis is higher which is connected with infecting during sexual intercourses. 50% of women are carriers of ureaplasmas. Among men the ratio is much lower.
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Multiplying within a cell, Chlamydia becomes awkward for most methods of treatment.
Clamidiosis treatment is complex and should include medications directed against pathogen and medications helping immune system to fight the infection.
Today for Clamidiosis treatment are used combination of antibacterial therapy (modern antibiotics acting within the cells), immunomodulatory therapy and lifestyle change.
During treatment patients are recommended to refuse from sex and alcohol. Multivitamin preparations and diet help to treat Clamidiosis more quicker.
After Clamidiosis treatment during several months patients should undergo examinations: females during 1 – 2 menstrual cycles, males – 3 -4 months.
Clamidiosis is a veneral disease and both partners should treat it, otherwise persists high risk of reinfection.
Clamidiosis frequently courses without symptoms, therefore people from risk groups (frequent change of sex partners, sex without using barrier methods of contraception) should undergo examinations on Chlamydia infection regularly. It is very important to do that because early recognition and timely started Clamidiosis treatment provides much effective treatment results and improves prognosis.
The prognosis in case of timely started treatment is favorable. Using modern anti-bacterial medications and immunostimulants helps to succeed full recovery in 95% cases.
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Incubation period is 5 – 30 days, and in most cases clamidiosis courses without symptoms. Sometimes appears pain during urination and little matter released from urethra. Often patients see the doctor when they already have complications which makes difficult clamidiosis treatment.
There are two forms of clamidiosis: acute and chronic. Acute form of clamidiosis is characterized with mild course, without damaging lower parts of urogenital tract. Chronic form is characterized with spread of infection to upper parts of urogenital tract which frequently causes complications.
Regular examinations help to detect infection at early stages. Any diagnosis bases on the results of several methods of examinations. Goal seeking of pathogen usually starts after examination by the specialist (urologist, gynecologist, venereologist, andrologist).
For example, in case of female infertility , unprompted misbirths, cervical erosion, inflammatory diseases in genital tracts, severe course of past pregnancies, is prescribed complex of diagnostic maneuvers to find sexually transmitted infections including clamidiosis. In males major symptom which would make the doctor suspect clamidiosis is prostatitis and urethritis, condylomata urethra opening. Examination may be performed in patients who had casual sex.
Primary examination makes specialist. In case he finds damages in reproductive system, he may suspect clamidiosis and suggest patient to undergo advanced examination to detect and confirm provisional diagnosis.
Matter for the investigation in females is scrape from surface of uterine cervix, urinary tract, vaginal discharges. In males for the investigation is taken sperm. Commonly are taken blood and urine. Modern methods (for example, Polymerase Chain Reaction) help to affirm with high precision if chlamydia was found or not in the obtained matter, and based on that specialist says the diagnosis. Using all the data obtained, including primary examinations data, the specialist prescribes treatment.
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